Grant-aided flood management strategies in Scotland and England between 1994 and 2004 : drivers, policy and practice
Tavendale , Amy C. W.
PublisherUniversity of Dundee
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This thesis investigates the nature of grant-aided flood management strategies for watercourses approved in England and Scotland between 1994 and 2004. A database of 595 grant-aided fluvial flood management strategies was established to classify the character of practice over this period. The presence or absence of 119 distinct measures of practice were placed in 10 Groups (e. g. Walls, Attenuation or Non- Structural), and used with cluster analysis to identify three types of practice: those relating to structural barriers, pumping stations and modifications to the channel. Structural measures dominated the database. Multivariate statistical analyses (principal components analysis, chi-squared tests and discriminant analysis) were used to quantify the main operational drivers upon practice. New associations were found between the presence or absence of Groups of practices and the nature of existing flood management activities, environmental designations, standard of protection, operating authority type and, most significantly, catchment characteristics. Catchment slope, size, urbanisation, base flow and wetness characteristics were found by discriminant analysis to be able to correctly predict the type of strategy in nearly 60% of cases, illustrating the degree of influence exerted by physical factors. Spatial and temporal patterns were examined. Regional patterns in flood management practice were influenced by catchment characteristics and the type of operating authority responsible. Strategies in Scotland were designed to a higher standard of protection and were proportionally more likely to involve Attenuation or Adaptation measures than their English counterparts. Invasive techniques such as those to increase conveyance, or those involving inchannel construction, decreased in frequency of implementation. Non-Structural measures and those deemed as Adaptation saw an increase in adoption over the 10- year period. Through investigation of a small sample of rejected alternatives, a rise in the appraisal of land use modifications was observed. These results illustrate a shift away from structural dominance, in line with calls for sustainable flood management.