Modelling nearshore waves, runup and overtopping
Mccabe, Maurice Vincent
PublisherUniversity of Manchester
MetadataShow full item record
Coastal flooding from wave overtopping causes considerable damage. Presently, to model wave overtopping one can either make use of physical model tests or empirical tools such as those described in the EurOtop manual. Both these methods have limitations; therefore, a quick and reliable numerical model for wave overtopping would be a very useful tool for a coastal engineer.This research aims to test and develop a numerical model (in one horizontal dimension) for nearshore waves, runup and overtopping. The Shallow Water And Boussinesq (SWAB) model solves the Boussinesq-type equations of Madsen and Sorensen (1992) for non breaking waves and the nonlinear shallow water equations for breaking waves. Through testing against a range of physical model data using regular and random waves, the SWAB model's transfer from non-breaking to breaking waves was optimised. It was found that a wave height to water depth ratio worked consistently well as a breaking criterion.A set of physical model tests were carried out, based on previous field testing of wave overtopping that had previously taken place at Anchorsholme, Blackpool. The SWAB model was used to simulate some of these physical model tests, giving good results for mean overtopping rates. SWAB models the force imposed by steep walls and recurve walls on the incident flow; this force was found to have a significant effect on overtopping rates. A comparison was made between mean overtopping rates from the SWAB model, the physical model tests, empirically-based software (PC-Overtopping) and the field data. The physical model and SWAB results compared well with the field data, though the empirical software gave large overestimates.The SWAB model was applied to the analysis of overtopping at Walcott, Norfolk. It was found that beach levels affected overtopping rates, but not as much as different randomly phased wave trains. A simulation of a recent storm event was performed, with overtopping rates being slightly lower than those reported by local residents. A joint probability analysis showed that the predicted frequency of such an event was in line with these reports.An alternative modelling technique was also tested, where a spectral energy model was coupled with a nonlinear shallow water solver. Results for wave runup parameters were very accurate, when the coupling location is at the seaward edge of the surf zone. Extension of this modelling technique into two horizontal dimensions would be more straightforward than with the SWAB model.