Impact of sea level rise, land reclamation andtidal power plants on regional tidal dynamics
Pelling, Holly E.
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The response of regional tidal dynamics to sea level rise (SLR), tidal power plants (TPPs),land reclamation and a combination of the above was investigated using two tidal models.The impact of SLR was investigated on, and tidal models validated for, the EuropeanShelf, the Bay of Fundy and the Bohai Sea. The tidal response varied greatly betweenregions; however the method in which SLR was implemented within the tidal models alsocaused significant variation in the response. vVhen sea level was increased but no landwas allowed to flood (i.e. the coastline did not move) the change in tidal by processesthat involved the increased water depth (such as tidal resonance). However, when landwas allowed to flood the response was governed by the change in the spatial distributionof tidal energy dissipation.The maximum extractable tidal energy and the impact of the extraction of this energyin the Minas Passage were investigated on the tidal regime of the Bay of Fundy. It wasfound that the impacts were significant and wide spread. Furthermore, it was demonstratedthat SLR could increase the maximum extractable tidal energy. The tides of theBay of Fundy are close to resonance and SLR with no flooding caused the system to movecloser to resonance. However when flooding was enabled the system did not move towardsresonance, suggesting the change in tidal dissipation dampened the response.The Bohai Sea has undergone rapid and extensive natural and anthropogenic landreclamation. Tidal gauge observations show that the tidal regime has responded significantlyto these changes. We have been able to reproduce these changes using a tidalmodel, furthermore, future simulations show that the tides of the Bohai Sea may havebecome more sensitive to impacts of SLR.It was found that the regional tides investigated were particularly sensitive to changesin the spatial distribution of ideal energy dissipation. As demonstrated by the investigationof practical scenarios.Key words: Tidal modelling, Tidal power plants, Sea level rise, Land reclamation, Tidaldynamics